The History of University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. It is a unique and historic institution. Its date of foundation is unclear, however it is believed that the teaching in the University of Oxford started in 1096 and further developed in 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris.
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. It is composed of 38 constituent self-governing colleges and has more than 20,000 students. It offers both full-time and part-time undergraduate, masteral, and doctoral degrees in the arts, social sciences, diplomatic studies, human rights law, health care and biomedical sciences.
To be a member of the university, all students, and most academic staff, must also be a member of a college or hall. There are thirty-nine colleges of the University of Oxford (including Parks College, planned to admit students in 2021) and six permanent private halls (PPHs), each controlling its membership and with its own internal structure and activities. Not all colleges offer all courses, but they generally cover a broad range of subjects.
The colleges are:
- All-Souls College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg All Souls College
- Balliol College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Balliol College
- Brasenose College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Brasenose College
- Christ Church Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Christ Church
- Corpus-Christi College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Corpus Christi College
- Exeter College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Exeter College
- Green-Templeton College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Green Templeton College
- Harris-Manchester College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Harris Manchester College
- Hertford College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Hertford College
- Jesus College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Jesus College
- Keble College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Keble College
- Kellogg College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Kellogg College
- Lady-Margaret-Hall Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Lady Margaret Hall
- Linacre College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Linacre College
- Lincoln College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Lincoln College
- Magdalen College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Magdalen College
- Mansfield College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Mansfield College
- Merton College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Merton College
- New College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg New College
- Nuffield College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Nuffield College
- Oriel College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Oriel College
- Pembroke College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Pembroke College
- Queens College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg The Queen's College
- Somerville College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Somerville College
- St-Anne's College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg St Anne's College
- St-Antony's College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg St Antony's College
- St-Catherines College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg St Catherine's College
- St-Cross College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg St Cross College
- St-Edmund-Hall College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg St Edmund Hall
- St-Hilda's College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg St Hilda's College
- St-Hughs College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg St Hugh's College
- St-John's College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg St John's College
- St-Peters College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg St Peter's College
- Trinity College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Trinity College
- University College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg University College
- Wadham College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Wadham College
- Wolfson College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Wolfson College
- Worcester College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Worcester College
The permanent private halls were founded by different Christian denominations. One difference between a college and a PPH is that whereas colleges are governed by the fellows of the college, the governance of a PPH resides, at least in part, with the corresponding Christian denomination. The six current PPHs are:
- Blackfriars Hall Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Blackfriars
- Campion Hall Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Campion Hall
- Regent's Park College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Regent's Park College
- St Benet's Hall Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg St Benet's Hall
- St Stephen's House Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg St Stephen's House
- Wycliffe Hall Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg Wycliffe Hall
Life in University of Oxford
Academic dress is required for examinations, matriculation, disciplinary hearings, and when visiting university officers. A referendum held amongst the Oxford student body in 2015 showed 76% against making it voluntary in examinations – 8,671 students voted, with the 40.2% turnout the highest ever for a UK student union referendum. This was widely interpreted by students as being a vote on not so much making subfusc voluntary, but rather, in effect, abolishing it by default, in that if a minority of people came to exams without subfusc, the rest would soon follow. In July 2012 the regulations regarding academic dress were modified to be more inclusive to transgender people.
Sport is played between college teams, in tournaments known as cuppers (the term is also used for some non-sporting competitions). In addition to these there are higher standard university wide groups. Significant focus is given to annual varsity matches played against Cambridge, the most famous of which is The Boat Race, watched by a TV audience of between five and ten million viewers. This outside interest reflects the importance of rowing to many of those within the university. Much attention is given to the termly intercollegiate rowing regattas: Christ Church Regatta, Torpids and Summer Eights. A blue is an award given to those who compete at the university team level in certain sports. As well as traditional sports, there are teams for activities such as Octopush and quidditch.
According to the QS World University Rankings by Subject, the University of Oxford also ranks as number one in the world for four Humanities disciplines: English Language and Literature, Modern Languages, Geography, and History. It also ranks 2nd globally for Anthropology, Archaeology, Law, Medicine, Politics & International Studies, and Psychology.
In common with most British universities, prospective students apply through the UCAS application system, but prospective applicants for the University of Oxford, along with those for medicine, dentistry, and University of Cambridge applicants, must observe an earlier deadline of 15 October. The Sutton Trust maintains that Oxford University and Cambridge University recruit disproportionately from 8 schools which accounted for 1,310 Oxbridge places during three years, contrasted with 1,220 from 2,900 other schools.
Throughout its history, a sizeable number of Oxford alumni, known as Oxonians, have become notable in many varied fields, both academic and otherwise. A total of 69 Nobel prize-winners have studied or taught at Oxford, with prizes won in all six categories. More information on notable members of the university can be found in the individual college articles. An individual may be associated with two or more colleges, as an undergraduate, postgraduate and/or member of staff.
At least 30 other international leaders have been educated at Oxford.This number includes Harald V of Norway, Abdullah II of Jordan, William II of the Netherlands, five Prime Ministers of Australia (John Gorton, Malcolm Fraser, Bob Hawke, Tony Abbott, and Malcolm Turnbull), Six Prime Ministers of Pakistan (Liaquat Ali Khan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Sir Feroz Khan Noon, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, Benazir Bhutto and Imran Khan), two Prime Ministers of Canada (Lester B. Pearson and John Turner), two Prime Ministers of India (Manmohan Singh and Indira Gandhi, though the latter did not finish her degree), S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike (former Prime Minister of Ceylon), Norman Washington Manley of Jamaica, Haitham bin Tariq Al Said (Sultan of Oman) Eric Williams (Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago), Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (former President of Peru), Abhisit Vejjajiva (former Prime Minister of Thailand), and Bill Clinton (the first President of the United States to have attended Oxford; he attended as a Rhodes Scholar). Arthur Mutambara (Deputy Prime Minister of Zimbabwe), was a Rhodes Scholar in 1991. Seretse Khama, first president of Botswana, spent a year at Balliol College. Festus Mogae (former president of Botswana) was a student at University College. The Burmese democracy activist and Nobel laureate, Aung San Suu Kyi, was a student of St Hugh's College. Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, the current reigning Druk Gyalpo (Dragon King) of Bhutan, was a member of St Peter's College.
University of Oxford has an acceptance rate of 17.5% (2015)